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References currently represented within the MPNS Resource

The MPNS Resource is built by collecting plant names from medicines and drugs literature and medicinal plant resources, this includes:

  • pharmacopoeias and monographs
  • ethnobotanical surveys and regional works
  • natural products research
  • formal and traditional herbals
  • conservation and trade checklists
  • databases with a regional or thematic focus compiling medicinal plant records

All references listed below are indexed in the Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) Resource and are organised into geographic regions based on countries of focus or intended use and according to the United Nations geoscheme.  Our selection of references has been guided by three main aims:

  1. To cover references of regulatory importance, for example pharmacopoeias and the EMA community herbal monographs.
  2. To cover references that reflect the most commonly traded medicinal plants.
  3. To be global in scope and include a diversity of names in multiple languages.

The MPNS Resource is currently at Version 10.0, containing a total of 191 references, new additions to this version are in bold and indicated by '[V10]' at the end of a citation. See 'The MPNS Resource' page for further details.

We are adding more references which will be included in the next release of the portal.  Please contact us if you know of additional references which you feel should be included: mpns@kew.org.

Africa

  • Arnold, T.H., Prentice, C.A., Hawker, L.C., Snyman, E.E., Tomalin, M., Crouch, N.R. & Pottas-Bircher, C. (2002). Medicinal and Magical Plants of Southern Africa: An Annotated Checklist.Strelitzia. 13: 1-203. 1
  • Boily, Y. & Van Puyvelde, L. (1986). Screening of Medicinal Plants of Rwanda (Central Africa) for Antimicrobial Activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 16 (1): 1-13. 1
  • Boudjelal, A. et al. (2013). Herbalists and Wild Medicinal Plants in M'Sila (North Algeria): An Ethnopharmacological Survey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 148 (2): 395-402.
  • Brendler, T., Eloff, J.N., Gurib-Fakim, A. & Phillips, L.D. (ed.) (2010). African Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Graphic Press, Mauritius. 1
  • Brink, M. & Achigan-Dako, E.G. (ed.) (2009). Obetia radula (Baker) B.D.Jacks. [Internet Record from PROTA4U]. PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa/Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands. #
  • Burkill, H.M. (1995). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Vol. 3. Families J-L. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Burkill, H.M. (1997). The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Vol. 4. Families M–R. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Busia, K. (ed.) (2007). Ghana Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Science and Technology Policy Research Institute, Accra. 1
  • Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R., Casares-Porcel, M., Sanchez-Rojas, C.P., Ramiro-Gutierrez, J.M., Molero-Mesa, J., Pieroni, A., Giusti, M.E., Censorii, E., de Pasquale, C., Della, A., Paraskeva-Hadijchambi, D., Hadjichambis, A., Houmani, Z., El-Demerdash, M., El-Zayatf, M., Hmamouchi, M. & ElJohrig, S. (2008). Medicinal Plants in the Mediterranean Area: Synthesis of the Results of the Project Rubia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 116: 341-357. 4 [v10]
  • Gurib-Fakim, A. & Brendler, T. (2004). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Indian Ocean Islands: Madagascar, Cormoros, Seychelles and Mascarenes. Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, Stuttgart. 1
  • Hadjichambis, A., Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, D., Della, A., Giusti, M.E., de Pasquale, C., Lenzarini, C., Censorii, E., Gonzales-Tejero, M.R., Sanchez-Rojas, C.P., Ramiro-Gutierrez, J.M., Skoula, M., Johnson, C., Sarpaki, A., Hmamouchi, M., Jorhi, S., El-Demerdash, M., El-Zayat, M. & Pieroni, A. (2009). Wild and Semi-Domesticated Food Plant Consumption in Seven Circum-Mediterranean Areas. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 59 (5): 383-414. 4 [v10]
  • Iwu, M.M. (1993). Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1
  • Oliver-Bever, O. (1983). Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa II: Plants Acting on the Nervous System. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 7 (1): 1-93. 1
  • Olowokudejo, J.D. et al. (2008). An Ethnobotanical Survey of Herbal Markets and Medicinal Plants in Lagos State of Nigeria. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 12: 851-65. 2008.
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (2015). Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa Database (viewed 13/11/2015 for use in SOTWP 2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (eds.) (2008). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA) 11 (1): Medicinal plants 1. Backhuys Publishers, CTA PROTRA, Wageningen. 1
  • Wageningen University (ed.) (2015). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa (PROTA) (viewed 16/08/2015 for use in SOTWP 2016). Wageningen University. 
  • Williams, V.L., Victor, J.E., & Crouch, N.R. (2013). Red Listed Medicinal Plants of South Africa: Status, Trends, and Assessment Challenges. South African Journal of Botany 86: 23-35.
  • Wyk, B.E. van (2015). A Review of Commercially Important African Medicinal Plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 176: 118-134.

Northern America

  • HPUS (2009). HPUS Online Database (viewed: 26/10/2009). Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (HPUS). 1
  • McGuffin, M., Kartesz, J.T., Leung, A.Y. & Tucker, A.O. (2000). Herbs of Commerce (2nd edn). AHPA, Silver Spring, USA. 1
  • Moerman, D.E. (1998). Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 1
  • U.S. FDA (2016). United States Food and Drug Administration Substance Registration System (viewed 2016). 
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2008). Food Chemicals Codex (6th edn). U.S. Pharmacopeia, s.loc.1
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2008). The United States Pharmacopeia USP 32. The National Formulary NF 27. 2009, Vol. 1-3. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville.1
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2013). The United States Pharmacopeia USP 37. The National Formulary NF 32. 2014. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville. 1
  • United States Pharmacopeial Convention (ed.) (2016). The United States Pharmacopeia USP 39. The National Formulary NF 34. 2016. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Rockville. 
  • Weiner, M.A. (1972). Earth Medicine - Earth Food. Plant Remedies, Drugs and Natural Foods of the North American Indians. Collier, New York.

Caribbean

  • Mitchell, S.A. (2011). The Jamaican Root Tonics: A Botanical Reference. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 16(4): 271–280. *

Central America

  • Alcorn, J.B. (1984). Huastec Mayan Ethnobotany. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.
  • Barrett, B. (1994). Medicinal Plants of Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast. Economic Botany. 48 (1): 8-20. 1
  • Coe, F.G. & Anderson, G.J. (1996). Screening of Medicinal Plants Used by the Garífuna of Eastern Nicaragua for Bioactive Compounds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 53: 29-50. 1
  • Comisión Permanente de la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (ed.) (2001). Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos. Secretaria de Salud, México D.F. 1
  • Comisión Permanente de la Farmacopea de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (ed.) (2013). Farmacopea Herbolaria de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos (2nd edn). Secretaria de Salud, México D.F. 1
  • Duke, J.A. (2009). Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1
  • Giovannini, P., Howes, M.J.R. & Edwards, S.E. (2016). Data on Medicinal Plants used in Central America to Manage Diabetes and its Sequelae (Skin Conditions, Cardiovascular Disease, Kidney Disease, Urinary Problems and Vision Loss). Data in Brief 7: 1217-1220.
  • Heinrich, M., Ankli, A., Frei, B., Weimann, C. & Sticher, O. (1998). Medicinal Plants in Mexico: Healers' Consensus and Cultural Importance. Social Science and Medicine. 47 (11): 1859-1871. 1
  • Martínez, M. (1990). Las Plantas Medicinales de México (6th edn). Botas, Mexico. *
  • Zuchowski, W. & Forsyth, T. (2008). Tropical Trees of Costa Rica. Distribuidores de la Zona Tropical, S.A. *

South America

  • Anon. (2009). Annexo III: List of Vegetable Drugs which are Included in the Registry of Long Tradition Phytotherapy Medications (in Agregado VIII Medicamentos Fitoterápicos Proyecto Iname/Anmat). Comité de Armonización de Medicamentos Fitoterápicos, Argentina.
  • Anon. (s.dat.). Farmacopea Argentina (8th edn). Vol. 3. (viewed: 09/09/2012). Ministerio de Salud, s.loc. 1
  • ANVISA (2010). Farmacopeia Brasileira (5th edn), 2 Vols. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, Brasilia. 1
  • Barboza, G.E., Cantero, J.J. Nuñez, C., Pacciaroni, A. & Ariza Espinar, L. (2009). Medicinal Plants: A General Review and a Phytochemical and Ethnopharmacological Screening of the Native Argentine Flora. Kurtziana 34 (1-2): 7-365. 1
  • Barrett, B. (1994). Medicinal Plants of Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast. Economic Botany. 48 (1): 8-20.
  • Brandão, M.G.L., Cosenza, G.P., Assis Moreira, R. & Monte-Mor, R.L.M. (2006). Medicinal Plants and Other Botanical Products from the Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 16 (3): 408-420. 1
  • Duke, J.A. & Vasquez, R. (1994). Amazonian Ethnobotanical Dictionary. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. *
  • Duke, J.A. (2009). Duke's Handbook of Medicinal Plants of Latin America. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1
  • Fátima Agra, M., França de Freitas, P. & Barbosa-Filho, J.M. (2007). Synopsis of the Plants Known as Medicinal and Poisonous in Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 17 (1): 114-140. 1
  • Fátima Agra, M., Nurit Silva, K., Lima Diniz Basilio, I.J., França de Freitas, P. & Barbosa-Filho, J.M. (2008). Survey of Medicinal Plants used in the Region Northeast of Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 18 (3): 472-508. 1
  • Giovannini, P. (2015). Medicinal Plants of the Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: Ethnobotanical Survey and Comparison with Other Amazonian Pharmacopoeias. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 164 (1): 78-88.
  • Milliken, W. (2015). Plants for Malaria, Plants for Fever (viewed 16/08/2015 for use in SOTWP 2016). 
  • Ribeiro Silva, S., Buitron, X., Oliveira, L.H. de & Martins, M.V.M. (2001). Plantas Medicinales de Brasil. Aspectos Generales sobre Legislacion y Comercio. TRAFFIC America del Sur, Quito. 1
  • Sanz-Biset, J., Campos-de-la-Cruz, J., Epiquién-Rivera, M.A. & Cañigueral, S. (2009). A First Survey on the Medicinal Plants of the Chazuta Valley (Peruvian Amazon). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 122: 333-362. 1
  • Tene, V. et al. (2007). An Ethnobotanical Survey of Medicinal Plants Used in Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 111 (1): 63-81.

Central Asia

  • Eisenman, S.W., Zaurov, D.E. & Struwe, L. (ed.) (2013). Medicinal Plants of Central Asia: Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. Springer, New York. 1
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. 1

Eastern Asia

  • Anon. (2007). Korean Pharmacopoeia (9th edn). Korea Food and Drug Administration, s.loc. 1
  • Anon. (s.dat.). Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards. Vols. 1-6 (viewed: 01/09/2014).
  • Anon. (2002). The Korean Herbal Pharmacopoeia, English edition (8th edn). Korea Food and Drug Administration, s.loc. 1
  • Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) (2005). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2005. People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing.1
  • Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) (2010). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2010. People's Medical Publishing House, Beijing.
  • Chinese Pharmacopoeia Commission (ed.) (2015). Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China 2015, Chinese edition. China Medical Science and Technology Press, Beijing.
  • Committee of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (ed.) (2006). The Japanese Pharmacopoeia (15th edn), English edition (JP XV). Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare, Tokyo. 1
  • Eisenberg, D.M., et al. (2011). Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation: Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration. Fitoterapia 82:17-33.
  • Hong, et al. (2015). Ethnobotanical Study on Medicinal Plants Used by Maonan People in China. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 11: 32.
  • Lang, T., Xia, J., Wu, C. & Deng, Q. (2017). Studies on Conservation Technique of Endangered Medicinal Plant Resources in Arid Desert Region. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 19(6): 97-105. *
  • Liu, Y. et al. (2014). Ethnobotany of Dye Plants in Dong Communities of China. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10: 23.
  • Liu, Y., Dao, Z., Yang, C., Liu, Y. & Long, C. (2009). Medicinal Plants Used by Tibetans in Shangri-La, Yunnan, China. Journal of Enthnobiology and Ethnomedicine 5: 15. *
  • MHLW (2012). Japanese Pharmacopoeia (16th edn), English edition (JP XVI). Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), s.loc. 1
  • Mun-Chan, B., Ho-Dzun, H. & Hammer, K. (1986). A Check-list of the Korean Cultivated Plants. Kulturpflanze 34: 69-144. * [v10]
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. 1
  • WHO (1997). Medicinal Plants in China: A Selection of 150 Commonly Used Species (WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series No. 2). World Health Organization, Manila. 1
  • Wu, J.-N. (2005). An Illustrated Chinese Materia Medica. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Yang, L., Ahmed, S., Stepp, J.R., Mi, K., Zhao, Y., Ma, J., Liang, C., Pei, S., Huai, H., Xu, G., Hamilton, A.C., Yang, Z. & Xue, D. (2014). Comparative Homegarden Medical Ethnobotany of Naxi Healers and Farmers in Northwestern Yunnan, China. Journal of Enthnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10: 6. *
  • Zhang, D., Duan, L. & Zhou, N. (2014). Market Survey on Traditional Medicine of the Third Month Fair in Dali Prefecture in Yunnan Province, South West China. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines 11(2): 377–401.
  • Zheng, X.L. et al. (2013). Ethnobotanical Study on Medicinal Plants around Limu Mountains of Hainan Island, China. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 148 (3): 964-974.
  • Zhonghua Bencao Editorial Committee, Chinese State Administration of TCM (ed.) (1998). Zhonghua Bencao (Materia Medica of China). Vols. 1-10. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Press, Shanghai. 1 [v10]
  • 衛生福利部臺灣中藥典第三版編輯工作小組 (MOHW) (2018). 臺灣中藥典第三版 (Taiwan Herbal Pharmacopoeia 2018, Chinese Version III). 衛生福利部, 臺灣 (MOHW, Taiwan). 1* [v10]

South-Eastern Asia

  • Cahyaningsih, R. (2020). Towards a Checklist of Indonesian Medicinal Plants (working dataset compiled as part of “Genetic Conservation and Sustainable Use of Indonesian Medicinal Plants” (PhD in prep. 2021)). The University of Birmingham, UK. 3 [v10]
  • Caniago, I. & Siebert, S.F. (1998). Medicinal Plant Ecology, Knowledge and Conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Economic Botany. 52 (3): 229-250. 1
  • Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee (1999). Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Vol. 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 1
  • Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee (2009). Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Vol. 2. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 1
  • Malaysian Herbal Monograph Committee (2013). Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Vol. 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 1
  • Padua, L.S. de, Bunyapraphatsara, N. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (eds.) (1999). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. Backhuys, Leiden (Plants Resources of South-East Asia 12 (1)). 1
  • Rahayu, S.S.B. (2003). Rafflesia R.Br. In: Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 3: 342-344. Backhuys, Leiden (Plant Resources of South-East Asia 12 (3)).
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. 1
  • Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. van & Bunyapraphatsara, N.(eds.) (1999). Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 2. Backhuys, Leiden (Plants Resources of South-East Asia 12 (2)). 1
  • WHO (1990). Medicinal plants in Viet Nam (WHO Regional Publications, Western Pacific Series No. 3). World Health Organization, Manila. 1

Southern Asia

  • Ahmad, M., Sultana, S., Fazl-I-Hadi, S., Ben Hadda, T., Rashid, S., Zafar, M., Khan, M.A., Khan, M.P. & Yaseen, G. (2014). An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in High Mountainous Region of Chail Valley (District Swat- Pakistan). Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 10: 36 2
  • Anon. (2006). Monograph on Medicinal Plants of Bhutan. Vol. 1. Institute of Traditional Medicine Services, Thimphu. 1
  • Anon. (2009). Monograph on Medicinal Plants of Bhutan. Vol. 2. Institute of Traditional Medicine Services, Thimphu. 1
  • Anon. (1999-2011). The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I. Vol. 1-7 (1st edn). Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi. 1
  • Anon. (2007-2008). The Unani Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. 1-5. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi. 1
  • Ashfaq, S., Ahmad, M., Zafar, M., Sultana, S., Bahadur, S. & Abbas, N. (2019). Medicinal Plant Biodiversity Used Among the Rural Communities of Arid Regions of Northern Punjab, Pakistan. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 18(2): 226-241. 2
  • Bano, A., Ahmad, M., Ben Hadda, T., Saboor, A., Sultana, S., Zafar, M., Khan, M.P., Arshad, M. & Ashraf, M.A. (2014). Quantitative Ethnomedicinal Study of Plants Used in the Skardu Valley at High Altitude of Karakoram-Himalayan Range, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 10: 43. 2
  • Bhattarai, S. & Tamang, R. (2017). Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: A Synopsis of Makawanpur District, Central Nepal. International Journal of Indigenous Medicinal Herbs and Drugs. 2 (3): 6-15.
  • Bibi, T., Ahmad, M., Bakhsh Tareen, R., Mohammad Tareen, N., Jabeen, R., Rehman, S.U., Sultana, S., Zafar, M. & Yaseen, G. (2014). Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants in District Mastung of Balochistan Province- Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 157: 79-89. 2
  • Bibi, T., Ahmad, M., Edwards, S.E., Tareen, N.M., Jabeen, R. & Abdullah, I. (2016). Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plants in the Treatment of Paediatric Geohelminth Infections in Kalat District of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 183: 176-186. 2
  • Butt, M.A., Ahmad, M., Fatima, A., Sultana, S., Zafar, M., Yaseen, G., Ashraf, M.A., Shinwari, Z.K. & Kayani, S. (2015). Ethnomedicinal Uses of Plants for the Treatment of Snake and Scorpion Bite in Northern Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 168: 164-81. 2
  • Dixie, G.B.R., Syed, A. & Hussain, M.J. (2003). Medicinal Plant Marketing in Bangladesh. The South Asia Enterprise Development Facility (SEDF) and Intercooperation (IC). * [v10]
  • Faruque, M.O., Feng, G., Khan, M.N.A., Barlow, J.W., Ankhi, U.R., Hu, S., Kamaruzzaman, M., Uddin, S.B. & Hu, X. (2019). Qualitative and Quantitative Ethnobotanical Study of the Pangkhua Community in Bilaichari Upazilla, Rangamati District, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 15: 8. * [v10]
  • Fatima, A., Ahmad, M., Zafar, M., Yaseen, G., Pukhtoon Zada Khan, M., Akram Butt, M., Sultana, S. (2018). Ethnopharmacological Relevance of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Oral Diseases in Central Punjab-Pakistan. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 12: 88-110. 2
  • Hamayun, M., Khan, M.A. & Begum, S. (2003). Marketing of Medicinal Plants of Utror-Gabral Valleys, Swat, Pakistan. Ethnobotanical Leaflets. 1: 13.
  • Ijaz, F. et al. (2016). Investigation of Traditional Medicinal Floral Knowledge of Sarban Hills, Abbottabad, KP, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 179: 208-233.
  • Jayatissa, L.P., & Samarasuriya, K. (2016). Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants of Sri Lanka (viewed October 2016). University of Ruhuna and Barberyn Ayurveda Resorts.
  • Kabir, M.H., Hasan, N., Rahman, M.M., Rahman, M.A., Khan, J.A., Hoque, N.T., Bhuiyan, M.R.Q., Mou, S. M., Jahan, R., & Rahmatullah, M. (2014). A Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by the Deb Barma Clan of the Tripura Tribe of Moulvibazar District, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 10: 19. * [v10]
  • Kayani, S., Ahmad, M., Sultana, S., Khan Shinwari, Z., Zafar, M., Yaseen, G., Hussain, M. & Bibi, T. (2015). Ethnobotany of Medicinal Plants Among the Communities of Alpine and Sub-Alpine Regions of Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 164: 186-202. 2
  • Kayani, S., Ahmad, M., Zafar, M., Sultana, S., Khan, M.P., Ashraf, M.A., Hussain, J. & Yaseen, G. (2014). Ethnobotanical Uses of Medicinal Plants for Respiratory Disorders Among the Inhabitants of Gallies - Abbottabad, Northern Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 156: 47-60. 2
  • Khan, M.A., Islam, M.K., Siraj, M.A., Saha, S., Barman, A.K., Awang, K., Rahman, M.M., Shilpi, J.A., Jahan, R., Islam, E. & and Rahmatullah, M. (2015). Ethnomedicinal Survey of Various Communities Residing in Garo Hills of Durgapur, Bangladesh. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 11: 44. * [v10]
  • Malik, K., Ahmad, M., Zhang, G., Neelam, R., Zafar, M., Sultana, S. & Nasar Shah, S. (2018). Traditional Plant-Based Medicines Used to Treat Musculoskeletal Disorders in Northern Pakistan. European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 19: 17-64. 2
  • Manandhar, N.P. (2002). Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 1
  • Mosaddegha, M., Naghibi, F., Moazzeni, H., Pirani, A., Esmaeili, S. (2012). Ethnobotanical Survey of Herbal Remedies Traditionally Used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad Province of Iran. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 141 (1): 80-95.
  • Nazish Rehman, M., Ahmad, M., Sultana, S., Zafar, M. & Edwards, S. (2017). Relative Popularity Level of Medicinal Plants in Talagang, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 27(6): 751-775. 2
  • Navchoo, I.A. & Buth, G.M. (1992). Ethnobotany of Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir State. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. Additional Series 10: 251-258.
  • Ocvirk, S., Kistler, M., Khan S., Talukder, S.H., & Hauner, H. (2013). Traditional Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Rural and Urban Areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh – An Ethnobotanical Survey. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 9: 43. * [v10]
  • Rahimi, R. & Bahramsoltani, R. (2018). Traditional Persian Medicinal Plants Database. Department of Traditional Pharmacy, School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. 5
  • Rao, A.N. (2004). Medicinal Orchid Wealth of Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Medicinal Plants of Conservation Concern (Newsletter of ENVIS Node, Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions, Bangalore) 1(2): 1-5.
  • Samarasuriya, K.S. & Jayatissa, L.P. (2020). Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants of Sri Lanka Compendium (data received 15/07/2020). Barberyn Ayurveda Resorts and The University of Ruhuna, Department of Botany, Sri Lanka. [v10]
  • Sher, H., Aldosari, A., Ali, A. & Boer, H.J. (2014). Economic Benefits of High Value Medicinal Plants to Pakistani Communities: An Analysis of Current Practice and Potential. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 10: 71.
  • Siddha Pharmacopoeia Committee (2008). The Siddha Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. 1. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, s.loc. 1
  • Soelberg, J. (2016). Useful plants of Wakhan and Pamir - نباتات سودمند واخان و پامیر. (Names retrieved from database relating to the Second edition. Jens Soelberg (self published)), Kabul. 6 [v10]
  • Sundaraghavan, R.S. & Singh, N.P. (1984). An Inventory of Endemic and Vulnerable Species of Western India Deserving Conservation. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 5 (1): 153-164.
  • TDU (ed.) (2020). Indian Medicinal Plants Database (data received 18/12/2020). The University of Transdisciplinary Health Sciences and Technology (TDU), Bengaluru, India. [v10]
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. 1
  • Ved, D.K. & Goraya, G.S. (2008). Demand and Supply of Medicinal Plants in India. FRLHT, Bangalore. 1

Western Asia

  • Al-Qura'n, S. (2009). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Wild Medicinal Plants in Showbak, Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 123: 45-50. 1
  • Della, A., Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, D. & Hadjichambis, A. (2006). An Ethnobotanical Survey of Wild Edible Plants of Paphos and Larnaca Countryside of Cyprus. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2: 34. 4 [v10]
  • El-Ghazali, G.E., Al-Khalifa, K.S., Saleem, G.A. & Abdallah, E.M. (2010). Traditional Medicinal Plants Indigenous to Al-Rass Province, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4 (24): 2680-2683. * [v10]
  • Fleurentin, J. & Pelt, J. (1982). Repertory of Drugs and Medicinal Plants of Yemen. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 6 (1): 85-108. 1
  • Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R., Casares-Porcel, M., Sanchez-Rojas, C.P., Ramiro-Gutierrez, J.M., Molero-Mesa, J., Pieroni, A., Giusti, M.E., Censorii, E., de Pasquale, C., Della, A., Paraskeva-Hadijchambi, D., Hadjichambis, A., Houmani, Z., El-Demerdash, M., El-Zayatf, M., Hmamouchi, M. & ElJohrig, S. (2008). Medicinal Plants in the Mediterranean Area: Synthesis of the Results of the Project Rubia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 116: 341-357. 4 [v10]
  • Hadjichambis, A., Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, D., Della, A., Giusti, M.E., de Pasquale, C., Lenzarini, C., Censorii, E., Gonzales-Tejero, M.R., Sanchez-Rojas, C.P., Ramiro-Gutierrez, J.M., Skoula, M., Johnson, C., Sarpaki, A., Hmamouchi, M., Jorhi, S., El-Demerdash, M., El-Zayat, M. & Pieroni, A. (2009). Wild and Semi-Domesticated Food Plant Consumption in Seven Circum-Mediterranean Areas. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 59 (5): 383-414. 4 [v10]
  • Health Authority - Abu Dhabi (ed.) (2005). Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants of UAE. Vol. 1. Zayed Complex for Herbal Research and Traditional Medicine (ZCHRTM), Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
  • Karousou, R. & Deirmentzoglou, S. (2011). The Herbal Market of Cyprus: Traditional Links and Cultural Exchanges. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 133: 191-203. 4 [v10]
  • Lange, D. (1998). Europe's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Their Use, Trade and Conservation. Traffic International, Cambridge, UK. [includes Turkey] 1
  • Lardos, A. (2016). Historical Iatrosophia Texts and Modern Plant Use in Monasteries on Cyprus, 2006-2012. Lardos, A. PhD outreach booklet, UCL School of Pharmacy, London. 4 [v10]
  • Lardos, A. & Heinrich, M. (2013). Continuity and Change in Medicinal Plant Use: The example of Monasteries on Cyprus and Historical Iatrosophia Texts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 150: 202-214. 4 [v10]
  • Lev, E. & Amar, Z. (2000). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Traditional Drugs Sold in Israel at the End of the 20th Century. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 72 (1): 191-205.
  • Lev, E. & Amar, Z. (2002). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Traditional Drugs Sold in the Kingdom of Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 82 (2): 131-145.
  • Mati, E. & Boer, H. de (2011). Ethnobotany and Trade of Medicinal Plants in the Qaysari Market, Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 133 (2): 490-510.
  • Oran, S.A. & Ali-Eisawi, D.M. (1998). Check-list of Medicinal Plants in Jordan. Dirasat. Medical and Biological Sciences, Jordan. 25: 84-112. 1
  • Özhatay, N., Koyuncu, M., Atay, S. & Byfield, A. (1997). The Wild Medicinal Plant Trade in Turkey. Doǧal Hayatı Koruma Derneǧi, Istanbul. 1
  • Said, O., Khalil, K., Fulder, S. & Azaizeh, H. (2002). Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Herbs in Israel, the Golan Heights and the West Bank Region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 83: 251-265. 1
  • Teoh, E.S. (2016). Medicinal Orchids of Asia. Springer, s.loc. 1

Europe

  • Anon. (2000). Les Plantes Médicinales de la Pharmacopée (Liste A). Société Française d'Ethnopharmacologie, s.loc.
  • British Pharmacopoeia Commission (2008). British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4. The Stationery Office, London. 1
  • British Pharmacopoeia Commission (2011). British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4. The Stationery Office, London.
  • British Pharmacopoeia Commission (2014). British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4. The Stationery Office, London.
  • EDQM (ed.) (2007). European Pharmacopoeia. Vol. 1-2 (6th edn). European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care (EDQM). Council of Europe, Strasbourg. 1
  • EDQM (ed.) (2012). European Pharmacopoeia. (7.8 edn). European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & Health Care (EDQM). Council of Europe, Strasbourg. 1
  • EMA (2005-2013). Community Herbal Monographs (Selected Final Versions Adopted Between 2006 and 2014). European Medicines Agency (EMA)/The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC).
  • Gonzalez-Tejero, M.R., Casares-Porcel, M., Sanchez-Rojas, C.P., Ramiro-Gutierrez, J.M., Molero-Mesa, J., Pieroni, A., Giusti, M.E., Censorii, E., de Pasquale, C., Della, A., Paraskeva-Hadijchambi, D., Hadjichambis, A., Houmani, Z., El-Demerdash, M., El-Zayatf, M., Hmamouchi, M. & ElJohrig, S. (2008). Medicinal Plants in the Mediterranean Area: Synthesis of the Results of the Project Rubia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 116: 341-357. 4 [v10]
  • Grey-Wilson, C. (1995). Les Fleurs Sauvages: Le Guide Visuel de Plus de 500 Especes de Fleurs d'Europe Temperee. Bordas, Paris. *
  • Hadjichambis, A., Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, D., Della, A., Giusti, M.E., de Pasquale, C., Lenzarini, C., Censorii, E., Gonzales-Tejero, M.R., Sanchez-Rojas, C.P., Ramiro-Gutierrez, J.M., Skoula, M., Johnson, C., Sarpaki, A., Hmamouchi, M., Jorhi, S., El-Demerdash, M., El-Zayat, M. & Pieroni, A. (2009). Wild and Semi-Domesticated Food Plant Consumption in Seven Circum-Mediterranean Areas. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 59 (5): 383-414. 4 [v10]
  • Hänsel, R. et al. (1992-1998). Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis. Vol. 1-5 (5th edn). s.loc. 1
  • Kommission E (1984-1994). Liste der Monographien der E-Kommission: Approved Status (viewed 01/03/2016). E-Kommission. 
  • Kommission E (1984-1994). Liste der Monographien der E-Kommission: Unapproved Status (viewed 01/03/2016). E-Kommission. 
  • Lange, D. (1998). Europe's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Their Use, Trade and Conservation. Traffic International, Cambridge, UK. 1
  • Morales, R., Macia, M.J., Dorda, E. & Garcia Villaraco, A. (1996). Archivos de Flora Iberica, Numero 7, Nombres vulgares, 2. Real Jardin Botanico CSIC, Madrid. *
  • Rigat, M., Bonet, M.Á., Garcia, S., Garnatje, T. & Vallès, J. (2007). Studies on Pharmaceutical Ethnobotany in the High River Ter Valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 113 (2): 267-277.
  • Shikov et al. (2014). Medicinal Plants of the Russian Pharmacopoeia: Their History and Applications. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 154 (3): 481-536.
  • Swissmedic (ed.) (2006). Pharmacopoeia Helvetica: Deutsche Ausgabe (10th edn). Swissmedic, Bern. 1
  • Zlatković, B.K. et al. (2014). Traditional Use of the Native Medicinal Plant Resource of Mt. Rtanj (Eastern Serbia): Ethnobotanical Evaluation and Comparison. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 151.1 (2014): 704-713

Oceania

  • Anon. (1998). Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific: Information on 102 Commonly Used Medicinal Plants in the South Pacific. World Health Organization, Manila (WHO Regional Publications Western Pacific Series No. 19).1
  • Barr, A., Chapman, J., Smith, N., Wightman, G. et al. (eds.) (1993). Traditional Aboriginal Medicines in the Northern Territory of Australia by Aboriginal Communities of the Northern Territory. Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin.1
  • Cambie, R.C. & Ash, J. (1994). Fijian Medicinal Plants. CSIRO, s.loc.1
  • Hansen, V. & Horsfall, J. (2016). Noongar Bush Medicine: Medicinal Plants of the South-West of Western Australia. UWA Publishing, Perth, Australia.
  • Packer, J. et al. (2012). An Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used by the Yaegl Aboriginal Community in Northern New South Wales, Australia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 139 (1): 244-255.
  • Padua, L.S. de, Bunyapraphatsara, N. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (ed.) (1999). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12 (1): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 1. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
  • Therapeutic Goods Administration (ed.) (2007). Substances that May be Used in Listed Medicines in Australia. Therapeutic Goods Administration, Symonston. 1
  • Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. van & Bunyapraphatsara, N. (ed.) (1999). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12 (2): Medicinal and Poisonous Plants 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.

Global/General

  • AHPA (2013). Section 5: Commonly Traded CITES-Listed Species in Primer on Importing & Exporting CITES-Listed Species Used in the United States in Dietary Supplements, Traditional Herbal Medicines, and Homeopathic Products (viewed 05/09/2015). American Herbal Products Association (AHPA).
  • Anon. (1977). Secrets et Vertus des Plantes Mèdicinales. Selection du Reader's Digest. *
  • Anon. (1999). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1. World Health Organization, Geneva. 1
  • Anon. (2004). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 2. World Health Organization, Geneva. 1
  • Anon. (2007). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 3. World Health Organization, Geneva. 1
  • Anon. (2009). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. World Health Organization, Geneva. 1
  • Balbachas, A. & Rodriguez, R.H. (1982). Las Plantas Curan, Sexta edicion. Reformation Herald Pub. Association, Blackwood, N.J. *
  • Barnes, J., Anderson, L.A. & Phillipson, J.D. (2007). Herbal Medicines (3rd edn). Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK.
  • Bartram, T.H. (1995). Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine. Grace Publishers, Christchurch, Dorset. *
  • Bremness, L. (1994). Kräuter Gewürze und Heilpflanzen. Ravensburger. *
  • Bremness, L. (1996). Les Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales: Le Guide Visuel de Plus de 700 Especes Vegetales a Travers Le Monde. Bordas, Paris. *
  • Brinkmann, J. et al. (2009). Medicinal Plants and Extracts Market News Service (MNS).
  • Desire, O. et al. (2010). Antispasmodic and Antioxidant Activities of Fractions and Bioactive Constituent Davidigenin Isolated from Mascarenhasia arborescens. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 130 (2): 320-328. #
  • Erhardt, W. von, Götz, E., Bödeker, N. & Seybold, S.; Coombes, A. (ed.) (2009). The Timber Press Dictionary of Plant Names. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. *
  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1983). Plants and Plant Products of Economic Importance. FAO Terminology Bulletin 25/1. Rome. *
  • ISO (2009). ISO 4720:2009. Essential oils -- Nomenclature (in English and French). (3rd edn, viewed 15/08/2009). International Organization for Standardization, Geneva. 1
  • ISO (2009). ISO Catalogue (viewed: 22/01/2009). International Organization for Standardization. 1
  • Mabberley, D.J. (1996). The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants. Cambridge University Press. *
  • Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses (3rd edn). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Palmweb (2015). Palms of the World Online (viewed 8/10/2015 for use in SOTWP 2016).
  • Penso, G. & Proserpio, G. (1997). Index Plantarum Medicinalium Totius Mundi eorumque Synonymorum (2nd edn). OEMF, Milano. 1
  • Quattrocchi, U. (2012). World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (2015). Kew Economic Botany Collection - Online Database (viewed 04/12/2015 for use in SOTWP 2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (1999). Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • RBG, Kew (ed.) (2015). Useful Plants and Fungi Project Database (viewed 17/11/2015 for use in SOTWP 2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
  • Schilcher, H. (2008). Kleines Heilkräuter-Lexikon, 5 Aufl. Walter Hädecke Verlag, Weil der Stadt. *
  • Spohn, M., Golte-Bechtle, M. & Spohn, R. (2008). Was Blüht Denn Da? Sicher Nach Farbe Bestimmen. Franckh Kosmos Verlag, Stuttgart. *
  • Suozzi, R.M. (1995). Dizionario Delle Erbe Medicinali: Oltre Duecentocinquanta Specie Vegetali Esaminate Nei Loro Effetti Curativi e Nella Loro Utilizzazione Practica. Newton Compton Editori, Rome. *
  • Svendsen, M. et al. (2015). The Effect of Kiwifruit Consumption on Blood Pressure in Subjects with Moderately Elevated Blood Pressure: A Randomized, Controlled Study. Blood Press. 24(1):48-54. #
  • WHO-UMC (ed.) (2019). WHODrug Herbal Substances (received 18/11/2019). Uppsala Monitoring Centre, World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring (WHO-UMC), Uppsala, Sweden. [v10]
  • WHO-UMC (ed.) (2020). WHODrug Herbal Substances: 2020 Supplementary New Entries (received 22/06/2020). Uppsala Monitoring Centre, World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring (WHO-UMC), Uppsala, Sweden. [v10]
  • Wiersema, J.H. & León, B. (1999). World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Retrieved as GRIN report on 17/03/2015 using query "Medizin = 'Alle Nutzungen'".1
  • Wiersema, J.H. & León, B. (2013). World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference (2nd edn). CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida; London. *
  • Wyk, B.E. van & Wink, M. (2004). Medicinal Plants of the World: An Illustrated Scientific Guide to Important Medicinal Plants and their Uses. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 1
  • Please Note: a hash (#) indicates a reference included to cover a specifically requested species.

MPNS is grateful to our partners and the following collaborators for providing MPNS with their data, as indicated above:

  • 1 Uwe Schippmann, "Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Resources of the World (MAPROW)". Bonn, Germany
  • 2 Prof Dr Mushtaq Ahmad, "Medicinal Plants of Pakistan". Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University. Islamabad, Pakistan
  • 3 Ria Cahyaningsih, "Genetic Conservation and Sustainable Use of Indonesian Medicinal Plants" (PhD in prep. 2021)). The University of Birmingham, UK.
  • 4 Rebecca Lazarou, "Plants and minerals in Byzantine popular pharmacy" (www.kew.org/science/our-science/projects/byzantine-popular-pharmacy). RBG, Kew, UK.
  • 5 Prof Roja Rahimi and Roodabeh Bahramsoltani, "Traditional Persian Medicinal Plants". School of Persian Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 6 Jens Soelberg, "Useful plants of Wakhan and Pamir". Museum of Natural Medicine, Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

* MPNS would also like to thank its team of research and data capture volunteers, past and present, without whom the MPNS Resource would grow far more slowly:

  • Patricia van Eijndthoven
  • Gunvanti Goding
  • John Haspineall
  • Rebecca Lazarou
  • Margaret Mason
  • Amparo Rodriguez
  • Wen-Hsin Tsou