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Plant Details

Accepted name: 
Citrus × aurantium L. [Rutaceae]
Taxonomic source and confidence: 
World Checklist: unpublished records ( Two stars out of three )
Information about this plant: 
Non-scientific name: Class of name: Medicinal plant reference:
airavata Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
amanatsu Other U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
anris Other Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
apfelsine Other U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
apfelsinenbaum Other Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
arancio Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
arancio amaro Other Dizionario Delle Erbe Med. (Suozzi, 1995)
GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
arancio dolce Other World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
aránsu Other Med. Pl. E. Nicaragua (Coe et al., 1996)
aránsu garühü Other Med. Pl. E. Nicaragua (Coe et al., 1996)
aurantii amari epicarpium et mesocarpium Pharmaceutical European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
aurantii amari exocarpium Pharmaceutical Farmacopeia Brasileira, 5th edn. (2010)
aurantii amari flos Pharmaceutical European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
aurantii bobilis pericarpium Pharmaceutical Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th edn. (2006)
aurantii dulcis aetheroleum Pharmaceutical European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
aurantii dulcis flavedo recens Pharmaceutical Pharmacopoeia Helvetica (Swissmedic, 2006)
aurantii floris aetheroleum Pharmaceutical E-Kommission: Approved Status (1984-1994)
aurantii flos Pharmaceutical E-Kommission: Unapproved Status (1984-1994)
aurantii fructus Pharmaceutical Hong Kong Chinese Materia Med. Standards (2014)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
aurantii fructus immaturi Pharmaceutical Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
aurantii fructus immaturus Pharmaceutical Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th edn. (2006)
Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
Korean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (2002)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
aurantii nobilis pericarpium Pharmaceutical Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
aurantii pericarpium Pharmaceutical E-Kommission: Approved Status (1984-1994)
Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th edn. (2006)
Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
Korean Herbal Pharmacopoeia (2002)
Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
azahar Other Archivos de Flora Iberica (Morales et al., 1996)
azahar, aceite esencial Other Farmacopea Herbolaria Mexicanos (2013)
Farmacopea Herbolaria Mexico (2001)
bigarade Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
bigaradier Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Les Plantes Méd. de la Pharmacopée: Liste A (2000)
bitter orange Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
ISO Catalogue (2009)
Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
U.S. Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HPUS, 2009)
bitter orange fruit Other Illus. Chinese Materia Medica (Wu, 2005)
bitter orange peel Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th edn. (2006)
Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
bitter orange petitgrain Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
ISO Catalogue (2009)
bitter tincture Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
bitter-orange epicarp and mesocarp Other European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
bitter-orange flower Other British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4 (2008)
British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4 (2011)
British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4 (2014)
European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
bitterorange Other Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
bitterorangen Other Dizionario Delle Erbe Med. (Suozzi, 1995)
GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
burdgan Other Med. Plants in Jordan (Oran, 1998)
burdqan Other Med. Plants in Jordan (Oran, 1998)
burtokal Other Med. Plants in Jordan (Oran, 1998)
charígi Other Med. Pl. E. Nicaragua (Coe et al., 1996)
chen pi Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
Illus. Chinese Materia Medica (Wu, 2005)
Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
TCM Plants for Syst. Bio. Evaluation (Eisenberg et al, 2011)
U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)
chenpi Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
Trad. Med. in Dali Prefecture, SW China. (Zhang et al., 2014)
chhalam Other Plants and People of Nepal (Manandhar, 2002)
chhokawasi Other Plants and People of Nepal (Manandhar, 2002)
chénpí Other Medicinal Plants in China (WHO, 1997)
citri exocarpium rubrum Pharmaceutical Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
citri reticulatae aetheroleum Pharmaceutical European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
citri reticulatae pericarpium Pharmaceutical Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
citri reticulatae pericarpium viride Pharmaceutical Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
citri reticulatae semen Pharmaceutical Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
citri sinensis pericarpium Pharmaceutical E-Kommission: Approved Status (1984-1994)
citri unshius pericarpium immaturus Pharmaceutical Korean Pharmacopoeia, 9th edn. (2007)
citrii unshiu immature peel Other Korean Pharmacopoeia, 9th edn. (2007)
citron vert Other World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
citrus reticulata pericarp Other U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)
citrus unshiius pericarpium Pharmaceutical Korean Pharmacopoeia, 9th edn. (2007)
citrus unshiu peel Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th edn. (2006)
Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
Korean Pharmacopoeia, 9th edn. (2007)
citrus vulgaris Other U.S. Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HPUS, 2009)
clementine Other Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
cáscara de mandarina Other U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)
daidai Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
dried bitter-orange peel Other British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4 (2008)
British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4 (2011)
British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4 (2014)
dried tangerine peel Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)
embul dodam Other Ayurvedic Med. Plants of Sri Lanka (2016)
exocarpium citri rubrum Pharmaceutical Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
frische orangenschale Other Pharmacopoeia Helvetica (Swissmedic, 2006)
fructus aurantii Pharmaceutical Illus. Chinese Materia Medica (Wu, 2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
fructus aurantii immaturus Pharmaceutical Illus. Chinese Materia Medica (Wu, 2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
grapefruit Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
ISO Catalogue (2009)
Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
The Plant-Book (Mabberley, 1996)
U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
grapefruit oil, coldpressed Other Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
grapefruit oil, expressed Other Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
green tangerine peel Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
gwanggyulnamu Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
heen naran Other Ayurvedic Med. Plants of Sri Lanka (2016)
immature bitter orange fruit Other Illus. Chinese Materia Medica (Wu, 2005)
immature orange Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15th edn. (2006)
Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
immature orange fruit Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
japanese summer grapefruit Other U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
ju Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
ju hong Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
juhe Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
Trad. Med. in Dali Prefecture, SW China. (Zhang et al., 2014)
juhong Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
kaisei-tō Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
kamal lebu Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
kamala Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
kamalapandu Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
khatta Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
khushkhash Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
kittale Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
konda naran Other Ayurvedic Med. Plants of Sri Lanka (2016)
kudagu Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
laranja-amarga Other Farmacopeia Brasileira, 5th edn. (2010)
laranja-azeda Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
laranjeira amarga Other Med. Pl. Braz. Pharm. (Brandão et al., 2006)
laranjeiradoce Other Med. Pl. Braz. Pharm. (Brandão et al., 2006)
loose-skinned orange Other Medicinal plants in Viet Nam (WHO, 1990)
madhura naranga Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
malta Other Med. Pl. in Talagang, Punjab Province (Nazish Rehman et al., 2017)
maltese orange Other Medicinal plants in Viet Nam (WHO, 1990)
mandarin Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
ISO Catalogue (2009)
Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
mandarin oil Other British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4 (2008)
British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4 (2011)
British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4 (2014)
European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
mandarin orange Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
mandarin petitgrain Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
ISO Catalogue (2009)
mandarina Other World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
mandarine Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
Les Plantes Méd. de la Pharmacopée: Liste A (2000)
World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
mandarinen Other World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
mandarinier Other World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
marmalade orange Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
melangolo Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
narang Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
narangi Other Demand & Supply of Med. Pl. in India (Ved et al., 2008)
Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
naranj Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
naranja Other Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
Med. Plants for Diabetes in C. America (Giovannini et al, 2016)
Med. Plants of the Achuar, Ecuador (Giovannini, 2015)
U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
naranja agria Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
Med. Plants for Diabetes in C. America (Giovannini et al, 2016)
Med. Plts. in Loja & Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador (Tene, 2007)
naranja amarga Other Archivos de Flora Iberica (Morales et al., 1996)
Dizionario Delle Erbe Med. (Suozzi, 1995)
GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
naranja amarga, cáscara Other Farmacopea Herbolaria Mexico (2001)
naranja amarga, epicarpio y mesocarpio Other Farmacopea Herbolaria Mexicanos (2013)
naranja mateca Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
naranja mexicana, aceite esencial centrifugado Other Farmacopea Herbolaria Mexico (2001)
naranja mexicana, aceite esencial desterpenado Other Farmacopea Herbolaria Mexico (2001)
naranja, aceite esencial Other Farmacopea Herbolaria Mexicanos (2013)
naranjo amargo Other Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
naranjo dulce Other Archivos de Flora Iberica (Morales et al., 1996)
Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
narenj Other Med. Plants in Jordan (Oran, 1998)
Survey in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad, Iran (Mosaddegh, 2012)
navel orange Other U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
neroli Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
ISO Catalogue (2009)
neroli aetheroleum Pharmaceutical European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
neroli oil Other British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4 (2008)
British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4 (2011)
British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4 (2014)
European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
néroli Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
nārenj Other Traditional Persian Med. Pl. Database (Rahimi et al., 2018)
oil of bitter orange Other ISO Catalogue (2009)
oil of bitter orange petitgrain, cultivated Other ISO Catalogue (2009)
oil of grapefruit, obtained by expression Other ISO Catalogue (2009)
oil of mandarin petitgrain Other ISO Catalogue (2009)
oil of mandarin, italian type Other ISO Catalogue (2009)
oil of neroli Other ISO Catalogue (2009)
oil of petitgrain, paraguayan type Other ISO Catalogue (2009)
oil of shaddock Other Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
oil of sweet orange, obtained by mechanical treatment Other ISO Catalogue (2009)
orange Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
orange amère Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
Les Plantes Méd. de la Pharmacopée: Liste A (2000)
Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
orange douce Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
Les Plantes Méd. de la Pharmacopée: Liste A (2000)
orange fruit Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
orange oil Other British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4 (2008)
British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4 (2011)
British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4 (2014)
U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 32 (2008)
U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 37 (2013)
U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)
orange oil, bitter, cold-pressed Other Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
orange oil, cold-pressed Other Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
orange oil, distilled Other Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
orange peel infusion Other British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4 (2011)
British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4 (2014)
orange peel syrup Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
orange peel tincture Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
orange tincture Other British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4 (2008)
British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4 (2011)
British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4 (2014)
orange, bitter Other Dizionario Delle Erbe Med. (Suozzi, 1995)
Encyclopedia of Herb. Medicine (Bartram, 1995)
Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
orange, sweet Other Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
orangenschalen Other E-Kommission: Approved Status (1984-1994)
oranger amer Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
oranger à fruit doux Other Les Plantes Méd. de la Pharmacopée: Liste A (2000)
orangerie Other Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
oranges Other Med. Plants of Yaegl Community, Australia. (Packer, 2012)
osan Other Med. Plants in Lagos, Nigeria. (Olowokudejo, 2008)
pamplemousse Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
paradisapfel Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
peni dodam Other Ayurvedic Med. Plants of Sri Lanka (2016)
pericarpium citri reticulatae Pharmaceutical Illus. Chinese Materia Medica (Wu, 2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
pericarpium citri reticulatae viride Pharmaceutical Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
petitgrain Other ISO Catalogue (2009)
petitgrain bigaradier Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
petitgrain mandarinier Other ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
petitgrain oil, paraguay type Other Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
pomelo Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
pomeranze Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
pomeranzen Other Dizionario Delle Erbe Med. (Suozzi, 1995)
Plants of Econ. Importance (FAO, 1983)
pomeranzenblüten Other E-Kommission: Unapproved Status (1984-1994)
pomeranzenblütenöl Other E-Kommission: Approved Status (1984-1994)
pomeranzenschale Other E-Kommission: Approved Status (1984-1994)
punchi jambola Other Ayurvedic Med. Plants of Sri Lanka (2016)
qing pi Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
qingpi Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
red tangerine Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
red tangerine peel Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
rerimse Other Plants and People of Nepal (Manandhar, 2002)
sadik Other Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
samtola Other Plants and People of Nepal (Manandhar, 2002)
sangtara Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
santalasi Other Plants and People of Nepal (Manandhar, 2002)
santara Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
santra Other Demand & Supply of Med. Pl. in India (Ved et al., 2008)
Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
satsuma Other Medicinal plants in Viet Nam (WHO, 1990)
semen citri reticulatae Pharmaceutical Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
seville orange Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
U.S. Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia (HPUS, 2009)
soh-niamta Other Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
sour orange Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
Survey of Trad. Drugs Sold in Jordan (Lev, 2002)
suan cheng Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
suntala Other Plants and People of Nepal (Manandhar, 2002)
suntalo Other Plants and People of Nepal (Manandhar, 2002)
suntola Other Plants and People of Nepal (Manandhar, 2002)
sweet orange Other Ayurvedic Med. Plants of Sri Lanka (2016)
Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
ISO 4720:2009 Essential oils: Nomenclature (2009)
ISO Catalogue (2009)
Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
sweet orange oil Other British Pharmacopoeia 2009, Vol. 4 (2008)
British Pharmacopoeia 2012, Vol. 4 (2011)
British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Vol. 4 (2014)
European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edn. (2007)
European Pharmacopoeia, 7th edn. (2012)
Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
sweet orange peel tincture Other U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 37 (2013)
U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)
tangarine Other World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
tangerine Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
Medicinal Plants in China (WHO, 1997)
Medicinal plants in Viet Nam (WHO, 1990)
U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
Unani Pharmacopoeia India (2007-2008)
tangerine oil, coldpressed Other Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
tangerine oil, expressed Other Food Chemicals Codex (USP, 2008)
tangerine peel Other Illus. Chinese Materia Medica (Wu, 2005)
tangerine seed Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
tian cheng Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
tinctura amara Pharmaceutical Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
toronja Other Archivos de Flora Iberica (Morales et al., 1996)
GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
World Economic Plants (Wiersema et al., 2013)
torónha Other Med. Pl. E. Nicaragua (Coe et al., 1996)
turng Other Pl. for Snake and Scorpion Bite in N. Pakistan (Butt et al., 2015)
uriaup Other Med. Pl. Nicarag. Atlantic Coast (Barrett, 1994)
valencia orange Other U.S. FDA Substance Registration System (2016)
yuan you Other GRIN Report: World Economic Plants (Wiersema, 1999)
zhi qiao Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
Illus. Chinese Materia Medica (Wu, 2005)
TCM Plants for Syst. Bio. Evaluation (Eisenberg et al, 2011)
zhi shi Other Herbs of Commerce (McGuffin et al., 2000)
Illus. Chinese Materia Medica (Wu, 2005)
Med. Pl. of the World (Wyk & Wink, 2004)
zhike Other Trad. Med. in Dali Prefecture, SW China. (Zhang et al., 2014)
zhiqiao Other Hong Kong Chinese Materia Med. Standards (2014)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
zhishi Other Pharmacopoeia of China (2005)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2010)
Pharmacopoeia of China (2015)
Trad. Med. in Dali Prefecture, SW China. (Zhang et al., 2014)
écorce de mandarine Other U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)
برتقال Other Med. Plants in Jordan (Oran, 1998)
برتقان Other Med. Plants in Jordan (Oran, 1998)
برتكال Other Med. Plants in Jordan (Oran, 1998)
نارنج Other Traditional Persian Med. Pl. Database (Rahimi et al., 2018)
نارينج Other Med. Plants in Jordan (Oran, 1998)
ちんぴ Other U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)
キジツ Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
チンピ Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
トウヒ Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
トウヒシロップ Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
トウヒチンキ Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
枳壳 Other TCM Plants for Syst. Bio. Evaluation (Eisenberg et al, 2011)
Trad. Med. in Dali Prefecture, SW China. (Zhang et al., 2014)
枳实 Other Trad. Med. in Dali Prefecture, SW China. (Zhang et al., 2014)
枳殼 Other Hong Kong Chinese Materia Med. Standards (2014)
橘核 Other Trad. Med. in Dali Prefecture, SW China. (Zhang et al., 2014)
苦味チンキ Other Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 16th edn. (2012)
陈皮 Other Medicinal Plants in China (WHO, 1997)
TCM Plants for Syst. Bio. Evaluation (Eisenberg et al, 2011)
Trad. Med. in Dali Prefecture, SW China. (Zhang et al., 2014)
U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)
陳皮 Other Medicinal Plants in China (WHO, 1997)
U.S. Pharmacopoeia USP 39 (2016)